|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-2
Jayant N Palaskar
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Dental and Allied Sciences,Department of Prosthodontics, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||11-Jun-2018|
Dr. Jayant N Palaskar
Department of Prosthodontics, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, S. No. 44/1, Off Sinhgad Road, Vadgaon Budruk, Vadgaon (Bk), Pune - 411 041, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Palaskar JN. Research ethics. J Dent Allied Sci 2018;7:1-2
Research that involves human subjects or participants raises unique and complex ethical, legal, social, and political issues. Research ethics specifically deals with the analysis of ethical issues that are raised when people are involved as participants in research.
There are three objectives in research ethics. The first and broadest objective is to protect human participants. The second objective is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that serves interests of individuals, groups, and/or society as a whole. Finally, the third objective is to examine specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness, looking at issues such as the management of risk, protection of confidentiality, and the process of informed consent.
According to Bryman and Bell (2007), the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations in dissertations (which may be generalized for any research):
- Research participants should not be subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever
- Respect for the dignity of research participants should be prioritized
- Full consent should be obtained from the participants before the study
- The protection of the privacy of research participants has to be ensured
- Adequate level of confidentiality of the research data should be ensured
- Anonymity of individuals and organizations participating in the research has to be ensured
- Any deception or exaggeration about the aims and objectives of the research must be avoided
- Affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests have to be declared
- Any type of communication in relation to the research should be done with honesty and transparency
- Any type of misleading information as well as representation of primary data findings in a biased way must be avoided.
| Ethical Principles and Codes|| |
As research ethics for the conduct of research is utmost important, various governments, universities, and professional associations have given specific codes, rules, and policies for conducting research. General summary of ethical principles given by various codes has been summarized by Shamoo and Resnik  which are as follows:
Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods, and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give proper acknowledgment or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize.
Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions.
Respect for colleagues
Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.
Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy.
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.
Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
Human subjects protection
When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks, and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.
| References|| |
Bryman A, Bell E. Business Research Methods. 2nd
ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Shamoo AE, Resnik DB. Responsible Conduct of Research. 3rd
ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.