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Oral manifestations of parathyroid disorders and its dental management
Sanjeev Mittal, Deepak Gupta, Sahil Sekhri, Shivali Goyal
January-June 2014, 3(1):34-38
Parathyroid hormone plays an important role in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, so, influence the mineralization of bone and teeth. Parathyroid disorder may lead to hyper or hyposecretion of hormone, which results in various oral manifestations. Common oral manifestations in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are brown tumor, loss of bone density, soft tissue calcification, and dental abnormalities. In hypoparathyroidism, the dental abnormalities are a delay or cessation of dental growth and development, paresthesia of the tongue or lips and alteration of the facial muscles. Dentist can easily diagnose the parathyroid disorders owing to their particular oral manifestations and radiographic finding. Dental management of patients with HPT involves a higher risk of bone fracture, whereas in hypoparathyroidism the caries control is the main concern. It is the important that the dentist be aware of the risks and difficulties that may arise during the dental management of these patients.
  82,405 3,690 7
Applications of Corticosteroids in Dentistry
Jatan Sanghavi, Amita Aditya
January-June 2015, 4(1):19-24
Corticosteroids, since their introduction in the 1940s, have become one of the most widely prescribed class of drugs. They belong to a class of chemicals that includes steroid hormones that are produced naturally in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates and analogous to those that are synthesized in laboratories. They have been used extensively in managing many oral diseases, due to their excellent anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However, considering their potential and significant side-effects, they are sometimes termed as the "double-edged sword" in the field of medicine. Their successful use depends upon the comprehension of the disease process. This includes an appropriate diagnosis, a clear view of the desirable treatment outcome and understanding of whether the treatment is aimed at the management of a chronic disease or enhanced resolution of a short-term condition. The possible beneficial effects of systemic corticosteroids must be weighed against probable risks. This article is aimed at reviewing the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of various oral conditions and lesions, and deriving a certain protocol for the same.
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Research ethics
Jayant N Palaskar
January-June 2018, 7(1):1-2
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Nonfluoride remineralization: An evidence-based review of contemporary technologies
Dheeraj D Kalra, Rinku D Kalra, Prajna V Kini, CR Allama Prabhu
January-June 2014, 3(1):24-33
Since past few years, there have been many strategies to combat dental caries, erosion, hypersensitivity, and many other oral conditions. The last decade has seen many advanced researches in the field of dentistry. The scope of dentistry has evolved from only a curative one to a largely preventive one. There have been technologies available for the minimal invasive cure of dental caries, early diagnosis and early reversal of the initial carious lesion using nonoperative techniques. There has also more focus being made to treat dental caries as a process rather than curing the lesion only. The role of saliva, demineralization and remineralization has been better understood. The aim of this paper is to review the contemporary nonfluoridated systems available for remineralization therapy and ideas for their implementation into clinical practice. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" and databases like Google and Google scholar, ScienceDirect and Wiley with the keywords remineralization, demineralization, nonfluoridated demineralizing agents was conducted in the month of August 2012 out of a total 114 articles, 86 articles have been used in the present evidence-based review.
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Journey of bone graft materials in periodontal therapy: A chronological review
Jitendra Kumar, Vaibhav Jain, Somesh Kishore, Harish Pal
January-June 2016, 5(1):30-34
Bone, the basic building block of the healthy periodontium, is affected in most of the periodontal diseases and can be managed either by mechanically recontouring it or by grafting techniques, which encourages regeneration where it has been lost. Bone replacement grafts are widely used to promote bone formation and periodontal regeneration. Bone grafting, placing bone or bone substitutes into defects created by the disease process, acts like a scaffold upon which the body generates its own, new bone. A wide range of bone grafting materials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes, have been applied and evaluated clinically, including autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts. This review provides an overview of the clinical application, biologic function, and advantages and disadvantages of various types of bone graft materials used in periodontal therapy till date with emphasis on recent advances in this field.
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Monomorphic adenoma: A rare benign neoplasm of the minor salivary gland: Case report and review of literature
Harish S Kulkarni, Gayithri H Kulkarni, Shahanavaj I Khaji, Ehtesham Iqbal, Jyoti M Biradar
July-December 2014, 3(2):108-110
Monomorphic adenoma is a rare benign salivary gland epithelial tumor representing <3% of all tumors in general population, and more than 80% of them arise in the major salivary glands, mostly the parotid gland and rarely in upper lip, buccal mucosa - as observed in the present case. Monomorphic adenomas are defined as epithelial benign tumors of the salivary glands, which are not pleomorphic adenomas. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis (adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, mucocele, sebaceous cyst, lipoma, nasolabial cyst, etc.,) is mandatory. The present case report describes a rare case of monomorphic adenoma involving minor salivary glands with added review the literature; discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity and special emphasis on the need for periodic follow-up, due to the important relapse potential and aggressivity of these lesions.
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Effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance values: A pilot study
Aditi Mishra, Jayant Palaskar
January-June 2014, 3(1):8-12
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance (HCG) values obtained on the semi-adjustable articulator. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 subjects of age 20-30 years, of either sex were selected. Two sets of maxillary and mandibular casts were obtained. A single arbitrary face-bow record was used for mounting the maxillary casts by direct and indirect transfer for each subject. The mandibular casts were mounted using maximum intercuspation record. Protrusive records were made in Alu wax and used to program the directly and indirectly transferred casts. HCG values obtained from cephalometric records were taken as control. The data was subjected to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Mean values of HCG obtained in direct face-bow transfer were 24.93°, indirect transfer −27.66°, and cephalometric analysis −32.73°. One-way ANOVA test indicated that there was a significant difference between all the groups (P < 0.05). Tukey's test with Bonferroni's correction (P < 0.01) was significant for direct and indirect transfer (P = 0.008), and direct transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.0046). A nonsignificant difference was found between indirect transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.047). Conclusion : There is a statistically significant difference in HCG values obtained from direct and indirect face-bow transfer records. Lateral cephalograms gave higher mean HCG values than those obtained from protrusive records. Mean HCG values obtained from indirect face-bow transfers are significantly more than those obtained from direct transfers and are also closer to the values obtained from the lateral cephalograms.
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Andrew's Bridge System: An Esthetic Option
Prajakta Bhapkar, Amit Botre, Preethy Menon, Priyanka Gubrellay
January-June 2015, 4(1):36-40
Loss of teeth often results in loss of a variable amount of adjacent soft and hard tissue. Complete esthetic surgical replacement of the lost tissues is difficult and unpredictable, particularly when a greater degree of the residual ridge has been lost due to trauma, congenital defects or other pathologic process. Fixed-removable partial dentures are particularly indicated for patients with extensive supportive tissue loss and when the alignment of the opposing arches and/or esthetic arch position of the replacement teeth create difficulties for placement of a conventional fixed partial denture. This case report shows the fabrication of a fixed-removable partial denture using the Andrews Bridge philosophy wherein a removable prosthesis is retained by a bar and sleeve attachment to fixed retainers on the either side of the edentulous space. This prosthesis is designed to meet the requirements for esthetics, comfort, phonetics, hygiene, and favorable stress distribution to the abutments and soft tissue.
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Unconventional pontics in fixed partial dentures
Mansi Manish Oswal, Manish Sohan Oswal
July-December 2016, 5(2):84-88
Clinical success of fixed prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of pontic design. The selection of pontic design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. At present, there are many different pontic designs and materials present in the market. For some patients, one pontic may have an advantage over another and the choice is a matter of preference with the operator. It is recognized that clinical circumstances will require infinite variations. Hence, the present study briefs about the unconventional pontic designs which can be used on regular basis for better clinical results.
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Ossifying fibroma of the maxilla: An uncommon tumor presenting diagnostic and management dilemma for the clinician: A rare case report
Shahanavaj I Khaji, Shreyas Shah, Mukesh R Baheti
January-June 2014, 3(1):53-57
Ossifying fibromas form a part of the spectrum of fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws. They are rare, benign, nonodontogenic tumors that are commonly seen in the head, and neck region. Ossifying fibroma of the jaw is a benign fibro-osseous lesion that is a part of larger family of fibro-osseous lesions that includes - juvenile aggressive ossifying fibroma, psammomatous ossifying fibroma, extragnathic ossifying fibroma of the skull. Patients generally present with a history of painless expansion of a tooth bearing portion of the mandible, whereas the lesions of the maxilla are less common. Benign fibro-osseous of the maxilla constitutes a varied group of lesions with a common histologic characteristic: The substitution of normal bone by tissue composed of collagen and fibroblasts with variable amounts of mineralized substance that may be bone, cementum or both. In the present case, we hereby report a 35-year-old male patient who presented with painless swelling over middle one third of face - left side since 8 months. Patient had no significant medical history in the previous past (history of trauma 6 years earlier). Panoramic radiography revealed rounded mixed type of image over left side of posterior maxilla in relation to 23, 24, 25, 26 region, respectively. An incisional biopsy was carried out which yielded a definitive diagnosis of ossifying fibroma of the maxilla. Management of the lesion was carried out by taking into account the benign nature, growth pattern, and behavior of the lesion clinically and radio graphically with regular and periodic follow-up postoperatively.
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Maxillary obturator
Aruna Jawahirlal Bhandari
July-December 2017, 6(2):78-83
Defects in the maxillary jaw can be congenital, developmental, acquired, traumatic or surgical involving the oral cavity and related anatomic structure. Absence or loss of some or all of the soft palate and / or hard palate results in insufficient structure or altered function of the remaining tissues. Defects can cause disruption of articulation and airflow during speech production and also nasal reflux during deglutition. Patients after surgical resection have altered anatomy due to scaring, tissue contracture, lack of bony support and tissue edema. These patients have problem of regurgitation of water and food through nose and difficulty in speech. These changes require the fabrication of prosthesis and also sometimes repeated prosthesis adjustments to confirm to the soft tissue changes. To prevent this and to help the patient in deglutition and speech defects must be restored with prosthesis. In such situation an obturator is designed to close the opening between the residual hard and / or soft palate and the pharynx. The prosthesis provided for these patients are called as obturators. An obturator is a prosthesis which is fabricated for the patients with the palatal defects in the form of cleft lip and palate, oroantral fistula or surgical resection after removable of pathology like tumor or cancer. This review article will highlight on the Prosthetic Rehabilitation of the maxillary defects and the types of obturators.
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The changing phase of prosthodontics: Nanotechnology
Anne Gopinadh, Manne Prakash, Kalluri Lohitha, Kadiyala Krishna Kishore, Anche Sampath Chowdary, J. Ravi Rakesh Dev
July-December 2015, 4(2):78-83
Science is presently undergoing a great evolution, taking humanity to a new era: The era of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the field of science and technology pertaining to the creation and use of materials or devices at nanometer scale. Nanoscale is small in size, but its potential is vast. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology has numerous applications in the field of nanomedicine, nanomaterials, nanorobotics, implantology, and biotechnology. Nanomaterials in dentistry can be metals, ceramics, polymers, implant modifications, and composite materials that demonstrate novel properties when compared with conventional materials due to their nanoscale features. The present article focuses on the various applications of nanotechnology in the field of dentistry, especially prosthodontics.
  7,649 1,495 2
Forced orthodontic extrusion for anterior traumatized teeth by a simplistic approach
Sameer Sidhagouda Patil, Ajay Sidharth Panicker, Ajit Hindlekar, SR Srinidhi, Ajinkya Dhumal, Ketan Vhora
July-December 2014, 3(2):111-113
The management of patients with traumatic injuries to their dentition is an integral part of the general dental practice. Anterior teeth with fractures that extend subgingivally require a complex treatment plan that addresses biologic, esthetic, and functional factors, such as mastication and speech. Treatment of crown fractures often requires a multi-disciplinary approach. However, crown-root fractures with fracture line below the gingival attachment or alveolar bone crest present restorative difficulties. This case report presents a 24-year-old male who reported with fractured upper right lateral and central incisors and upper left central incisor following road traffic accident. On clinical examination, it was observed that the upper right lateral incisor had a horizontal fracture at the cervical one-third level with the fracture line extending subgingivally, mid crown fracture of right central incisor and incisal fracture of left central incisor. All the traumatized teeth were first treated endodontically, and then referred to our department for orthodontic extrusion before permanent crown placement.
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Framing the research question using PICO strategy
Jayant N Palaskar
July-December 2017, 6(2):55-55
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Diagnosis and management of periodontal disease in children and adolescents: A brief review
Vineet Kini, Raju Umaji Patil, Tushar Pathak, Amit Prakash, Bharat Gupta
July-December 2016, 5(2):78-83
Periodontal disease when occurring in children leads to premature tooth loss, affecting the quality of life. Thus, screening pediatric and adolescent patients early, for periodontal disease is deemed imperative to its early management for improved prognosis. Chronic periodontitis (CP) has slow rate of progression, whereas aggressive periodontitis (AP) affecting children and young adults has rapid rate of progression. The management of AP in particular is affected by bacterial virulence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in plaque leading to rapid attachment and bone loss around the affected teeth. Nonsurgical treatment, use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and surgical correction of defects is required to mitigate disease followed by a comprehensive supportive periodontal therapy. This review visits the current understanding of periodontal disease, its management in pediatric and adolescent patients.
  7,674 1,013 1
Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview
Savy Arora, Sanjeev Mittal, Veronika Dogra
January-June 2017, 6(1):22-27
In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1) appropriate policy development and implementation and (2) dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.
  7,308 1,059 4
Natural tooth pontic with splinting of periodontally weakened teeth using fiber-reinforced composite resin
Gauri Srinidhi, Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra
January-June 2014, 3(1):43-46
Replacement of missing anterior teeth due to periodontal reasons is challenging due to the poor support of abutment teeth. This prevents the use of fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Fiber-reinforced splinting provides a viable alternative to the dentist while choosing a treatment plan in replacing missing anterior teeth in periodontally compromised patients as opposed to conventional modalities like FPDs or removable partial dentures. Replacing missing teeth using either patient's own tooth or a denture tooth as pontic can be done by splinting adjacent teeth with fiber reinforced composite. The splinting has an additional advantage of stabilizing adjacent mobile teeth. This case report details the case selection, procedure with follow-up of a case where the natural extracted tooth of the patient was used as pontic to replace a missing anterior tooth. The splinting was done with fiber reinforced composite resin. Fiber-reinforced composite resin splinting of patient's extracted natural tooth is economical, fast, and easy to use chairside technique with the added benefit of periodontal stabilization.
  7,614 734 -
Immediate placement of dental implants: An overview
Divya Sanjay Agarwal, Nihal Dattatray Devkar, Akshay Ramesh Vibhute, Praful Dhiraj Walke
July-December 2018, 7(2):70-74
Extraction of a tooth means failure of a conservative approach which may give rise to the act of a reconstructive surgery i.e. immediate implant placement technique with the immediate loading. This therapeutic option of immediate loading compensates the negative psychological effect of extraction. There are two main advantages of immediate loading. The first is the biological effect which consists of the osseointegration of the implant despite the constraints experienced in the healing stage. The second is the imperative effect that is logical and consists of the subsequent production of the surgical and prosthetic stage in the shortest time.
  7,197 1,098 -
An Alternative Technique for Cementation of Cast Post and Core Restoration
Bhushan Satish Gaikwad, Mayura S Badgujar
January-June 2015, 4(1):44-46
Cementation of cast post and core restoration involves the application of luting cement in the prepared post space which is intra radicular. Commonly an endodontic instrument, lentulo spiral, and rotary hand piece at slow speed is used. Occasionally, the luting cement does not reach the base or is not uniformly spread on to the walls of the prepared post space. The inefficiency of the luting cement to cover all the surfaces of the prepared post space results in a compromised post and core treatment. An alternate procedure using a disposable syringe and needle has been described to achieve better results.
  7,715 557 -
Treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of twin-block and combination-pull headgear
Sameer S Patil, Sandesh S Baralay, Sheetal S Potnis
July-December 2014, 3(2):102-104
The patient was a girl with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, a large overjet, an excessively deep overbite, and a slightly increased mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with combination-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior plane, and improve her profile. This was later, followed by fixed appliance therapy.
  7,153 1,003 -
Entrepreneurship in dentistry
Jayant N Palaskar
July-December 2014, 3(2):69-69
  3,571 4,345 1
Applications of forensic odontology in pediatric dentistry: A brief communication
Pradnya J Dongre, Raju Umaji Patil, Sameer S Patil
January-June 2017, 6(1):17-21
Forensic odontology is the application of dentistry to law and delineates the overlap between dental and legal professions. Pedodontist plays an important role in forensic odontology by applying his expertise in various fields such as accidental or nonaccidental oral trauma, child abuse and neglect, age determination, dental records, and mass disasters by examination of the teeth and jaws structure for clues. These dental findings/records may be helpful in forensic identification wherein an unidentified individual can be identified using dentition. Information of teeth record remains throughout life and beyond, due to their physiologic variations, pathology, and effects of therapy. Lip prints and palatal rugae patterns can also lead us to important information and help in person's identification. Teeth can also help in determining gender of the skeletonized remains using dental DNA. Forensic odontology also plays role in crime investigation caused by dentition, such as bite marks. Odontologist can help physician in evaluation of bite marks due to abuse. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of pedodontist in various aspects of forensic odontology and procedures needed for examination, identification, and investigations of bite marks.
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Use of propolis in pediatric dentistry
Seema Malhotra, Vinay Kumar Gupta
July-December 2014, 3(2):93-98
Pediatric age groups are the ones that are more susceptible to a drug. Complications/side effects due to the use of man-made drugs have paved way for the natural products for pharmacotherapeutic purposes. Propolis, a natural resinous substance shows dental application based on its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. An alternative to gold standard drugs propolis is easy to use, patient friendly, and easily accessible.
  6,516 1,054 2
Management of traumatically intruded permanent maxillary lateral incisor - Case report and review of literature
Deepak Sharma, Pravesh Jhingta, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Ashu Bhardwaj
January-June 2016, 5(1):46-49
Primary etiologic factors of trauma in the permanent dentition are bicycle accidents, sports accidents, falls, and fights. From the standpoint of therapy, anatomy, and prognosis, five different types of luxation lesions are recognized: Concussion, subluxation, extrusive luxation, lateral luxation, and intrusive luxation. Intrusive luxation is apical displacement of tooth into the alveolar bone. The tooth is driven into the socket, compressing the periodontal ligament, and commonly causes a crushing fracture of the alveolar socket. It is considered one of the most severe luxation injuries to affect permanent teeth. Intrusion injuries are often associated with severe damage to the tooth, periodontium, and pulpal tissue. The rare occurrence of this injury, 0.3–1.9% in the permanent dentition, has resulted in limited studies to support suggested treatment regimens. Clinical treatment for intrusion is especially difficult because of the severe complications accompanying it. These complications include pulp necrosis or obliteration, inflammatory root resorption, ankylosis, replacement root resorption, and loss of marginal bone support. Hence, the aim of presenting this case report of intrusive luxation is to highlight the importance of prompt care and root canal dressing and discuss the several treatments proposed to reposition the intruded teeth.
  6,445 520 -
Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review
Ashok Shinde, Jayashree Ganu, Pankaja Naik
July-December 2012, 1(2):63-66
Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.
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