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   2016| January-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 1, 2016

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Journey of bone graft materials in periodontal therapy: A chronological review
Jitendra Kumar, Vaibhav Jain, Somesh Kishore, Harish Pal
January-June 2016, 5(1):30-34
Bone, the basic building block of the healthy periodontium, is affected in most of the periodontal diseases and can be managed either by mechanically recontouring it or by grafting techniques, which encourages regeneration where it has been lost. Bone replacement grafts are widely used to promote bone formation and periodontal regeneration. Bone grafting, placing bone or bone substitutes into defects created by the disease process, acts like a scaffold upon which the body generates its own, new bone. A wide range of bone grafting materials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes, have been applied and evaluated clinically, including autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts. This review provides an overview of the clinical application, biologic function, and advantages and disadvantages of various types of bone graft materials used in periodontal therapy till date with emphasis on recent advances in this field.
  17,134 3,161 -
Management of traumatically intruded permanent maxillary lateral incisor - Case report and review of literature
Deepak Sharma, Pravesh Jhingta, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Ashu Bhardwaj
January-June 2016, 5(1):46-49
Primary etiologic factors of trauma in the permanent dentition are bicycle accidents, sports accidents, falls, and fights. From the standpoint of therapy, anatomy, and prognosis, five different types of luxation lesions are recognized: Concussion, subluxation, extrusive luxation, lateral luxation, and intrusive luxation. Intrusive luxation is apical displacement of tooth into the alveolar bone. The tooth is driven into the socket, compressing the periodontal ligament, and commonly causes a crushing fracture of the alveolar socket. It is considered one of the most severe luxation injuries to affect permanent teeth. Intrusion injuries are often associated with severe damage to the tooth, periodontium, and pulpal tissue. The rare occurrence of this injury, 0.3–1.9% in the permanent dentition, has resulted in limited studies to support suggested treatment regimens. Clinical treatment for intrusion is especially difficult because of the severe complications accompanying it. These complications include pulp necrosis or obliteration, inflammatory root resorption, ankylosis, replacement root resorption, and loss of marginal bone support. Hence, the aim of presenting this case report of intrusive luxation is to highlight the importance of prompt care and root canal dressing and discuss the several treatments proposed to reposition the intruded teeth.
  7,763 596 -
Unilateral nevus of ota: A case report of oculodermal melanocytosis!
Rashmi Maheshwari, Vela Desai, MV Sunil Kumar, Isha Gaurav
January-June 2016, 5(1):39-42
Hulke first described nevus of Ota in 1860, but a detailed description was made first by Ota in 1939 wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve were described. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. Nevus of Ota is a nonhereditary pigmentation disorder, more commonly seen in females. The authors present, yet another case of unilateral nevus of Ota in a young Indian girl.
  6,452 336 1
Botox: In orthodontics
Harshal Ashok Patil, Veerendra V Kerudi, Prasad Vasudeo Bonde, Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale
January-June 2016, 5(1):21-24
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) (Botox, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) has been studied since the late 1970s for the treatment of several conditions associated with excessive muscle contraction. Smile esthetics has become a major concern among patients and orthodontists. This article describes the efficient, nonsurgical, and less invasive use of BTX-A injection for the correction of a gummy smile in orthodontics.
  5,989 595 -
Evaluation of microleakage in hybrid composite restoration with different intermediate layers and curing cycles
Mohan R Sakri, Pushpa Koppal, BC Patil, Satheesh B Haralur
January-June 2016, 5(1):14-20
Objective: To evaluate the impact of bulk or incremental curing of hybrid composite resin with different intermediate layers on interfacial microleakage. Materials and Methods: The recently extracted, sixty noncarious human mandibular molars were selected for the study. The standardized mesio-occluso-distal cavity with the occlusal cavity of 2 mm depth, 3 mm buccolingual width and proximal box dimension of 4 mm buccolingual width and 2 mm depth was prepared on all experimental teeth. The samples were divided into six groups of ten each. Group I was without an intermediate layer. Group II and III had 1 mm flowable composite liner, with incremental and bulk curing cycle, respectively. The Group IV, V, and VI had a self-cure composite liner with incremental and bulk curing. The teeth subjected to thermocycling and kept in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h. The teeth were sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope to grade them according to the extent of microleakage. The obtained data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and post hoc comparison test to understand the difference between the groups. Results: The Group II with flowable composite along incremental curing showed the least microleakage at both enamel (0.30) and cementum surface (0.50). The groups with self-cure composite liner were less effective than flowable composite. The microleakage at the enamel interface was less compared cementum interface across the groups. The groups with bulk curing were more prone to microleakage than incremental curing cycle. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, it was concluded that intermediate flowable composite with incremental curing was better suited to reduce microleakage.
  5,168 486 -
Spectrum of choices to restore the smile of a child: An update on current pediatric anterior crowns
Amit Kumar Sahu, Raju Umaji Patil, Halaswamy V Kambalimath, Alexander Asokan, Satish Maran, Somya Jain
January-June 2016, 5(1):25-29
Esthetic treatment of severely damaged primary teeth is one of the greatest challenges to pediatric dentists. A wide variety of full coverage esthetic crowns for primary teeth are commercially available in the market. A practitioner should choose convenient, durable, and reliable solution which is fulfilled with complete knowledge of different crown forms. This article on esthetic crowns for children gives an outline of various anterior crowns in a tabular form, reviews their composition, advantages, disadvantages, and selection criteria.
  4,607 783 -
A rare case of vestibular sinus tract: A periodontist enigma
Disha Nagpal, Kala Bhushan, Shobha Prakash
January-June 2016, 5(1):35-38
Sinus tract occurs commonly in teeth with periapical/periodontal infection but the formation of a vestibular opening, causing esthetic compromise and food lodgement, is uncommon. Definitive treatment of a chronic sinus tract requires treatment of the original problem, that is, the necrotic pulp treated by endodontic therapy or by extraction of the tooth. However, at times endodontic therapy may not be adequate necessitating periodontal intervention. The present case had vestibular opening communicating with root canal of concerned tooth appearing ten years after trauma. The diagnosis of such cases can only be made after careful evaluation and the treatment plan has to be modified from the conventional. The success of such cases depends on the regular follow up as presented here and careful observation after each phase of treatment.
  5,017 288 -
Rare presentation of accessory tubercles on permanent maxillary second molar
Kubsad Veerabhadrappa Arunkumar, Dhruvakumar Deepa
January-June 2016, 5(1):43-45
Tooth malformations may be related to heredity or injury during formation. Such morphological abnormalities may be found in the crown either in the form of anomalous cusps or in an increased number of roots, which in some cases are associated with an anomalous cusp. Cone-like enlargements on the buccal cusp of maxillary molar is one such anomaly. This case presents the anatomical and morphological characteristics of a rare case of three lobulated tubercles on the buccal surface of permanent maxillary right second molar tooth.
  4,540 345 1
Primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue: A rare presentation
Lavanya Karanam, Satvinder Singh Bakshi, Madhu Priya, V Nirmal Coumare, S Vijayasundaram
January-June 2016, 5(1):50-52
The head and neck is the second most common region for extranodal lymphomas. The most common site is the Waldeyer's ring, and involvement of the base of tongue is extremely rare. We present a rare case of a young female with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the base of tongue. A 23-year-old female presented with a history of foreign body sensation in her throat for a month. Oral examination revealed a lobulated smooth mass at the base of tongue. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography neck shows polypoidal homogeneously enhancing soft tissue lesion in the base of tongue extending till the lateral pharyngeal wall. The biopsy of the lesion was reported as NHL. Hodgkin's lymphoma should be kept in the differential diagnosis of swelling arising from the base of tongue. We report a rare and varied presentation of extranodal lymphoma. A careful clinical evaluation supported by histopathological and radiologic investigations will help in identifying the disease at an early stage, resulting in a better prognosis.
  4,505 313 1
Stress analysis in maxillary incisor following fragment reattachment: A finite element analysis
Attiguppe Ramasetty Prabhakar, Limaye Nandita Shrikant, Basappa Nadig
January-June 2016, 5(1):7-13
Objectives: To demonstrate stress propagation through three flowable composites used in fragment reattachment using finite element models. Study Design: It was a finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: Two permanent maxillary incisors were selected of which one was used as control. The test tooth was sectioned and reattached using simple reattachment technique. The groups were: Filtek Z350 (Group 1), G-aenial Universal Flo (Group 2), Esthet X-Flow (Group 3). Finite element models were created using cone beam computed tomography images of these teeth. Required physical properties of enamel, dentin, periodontal ligament (PDL), bone, flowable composites were fed into the software. Models were subjected to a load of 150N in a vertical direction. Analysis was done using ANSYS software wherein data were obtained in pictographic and numerical form (Von Mises' stresses [megapascal]). Results: Among flowable composites, maximum stress was created in Esthet X-Flow whereas least stress was observed in Filtek Z350. Maximum stress concentration occurred at the point of load application for flowable composite and enamel, at the point of load application directed in the cervical direction of the crown for dentin, in the apical region for PDL and the cervical bone area for bone. Conclusion: The study revealed that Filtek Z350 had superior tested properties and showed the least stress propagation.
  3,305 369 -
Radiographic assessment of agenesis, impaction, and pararadicular radiolucencies in relation with third molar in Nashik City of Maharashtra
Bhushan Sukdeo Ahire, Ajay R Bhoosreddy, Seema Bhoosreddy, Manila R Shinde, Atul A Pandharbale, Varun R Kunte
January-June 2016, 5(1):3-6
Introduction: The third molar develops entirely after birth and also it is the last tooth to erupt in all ethnic groups despite racial variations in the eruption sequence. Tooth development with effects on tooth size, shape, position, and total absence is affected due to environmental factors, systemic diseases, genetic polymorphisms, and teratogens. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of agenesis, impaction, and pararadicular radiolucencies in relation with third molars. Materials and Methods: One hundred digital orthopantomograph (OPG) scans of patients of age ranging from 18 to 25 years were selected randomly from the digital OPG database of the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, and then assessment and analysis were carried out. Results: Overall agenesis rate was about 14.5%. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary and mandibular third molars was about 14% and 13%, respectively. Overall impaction rate was about 21.92%. Mesioangular impaction rate was about 57.33% whereas distoangular impaction rate was about 26.66%. Prevalence of pararadicular radiolucencies was only about 0.8% with mandibular predilection. Conclusion: As the agenesis of the third molars is increasing, they can be considered as vestigial. Prevalence of impaction of the third molars is increasing. Pararadicular radiolucencies are mostly seen with mandibular third molar.
  3,081 338 1
Randomized control trial: An overview
Jayant N Palaskar
January-June 2016, 5(1):1-2
  2,363 318 -